Dr. Hajime Tanaka's research group have shown through simulation that four phases of a substance composed of a single component can coexist at thermal equilibrium―where all parts are at the same temperature and pressure― a situation that runs counter to the laws of thermodynamics (as stated in the Gibbs phase rule). The findings not only deepen our basic understanding of phases of a substance existing in equilibrium, but they also may be applied to the development of functional materials possessing phase-change properties.
UTokyo Research : http://www.u-tokyo.ac.jp/en/utokyo-research/research-news/study-shows-coexistence-of-four-phases-of-single-component-substance.html
Journal Title : Nature Communications
Article Title : A possible four-phase coexistence in a single-component system
Author(s) : Kenji Akahane, John Russo, Hajime Tanaka
Abstract URL : http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/NCOMMS12599